A segment from my latest post on my other blog:
For Nussbaum, this means educating American children about the “history” and the “situation and attitudes” of other countries in a formal setting. She also wants to use media as a platform to educate us about the problems facing others. Perhaps I am not being charitable enough, but Nussbaum’s solution to instilling a cosmopolitan worldview is theoretical and remote. Against Appiah’s understanding of the world as already so culturally intermixed, Nussbaum’s cosmopolitan vision seems timid. Whereas Appiah sees the free exchange of art, ideas, and systems of morality already in abundance, Nussbaum believes we need domestic educational reform that incorporate things like “Cambodian human rights day” and “the history of worker revolts in Chile” (these are my examples, not Nussbaum’s). This may be a wise thing to include in our curriculum, but for many—including teachers—it will become merely another item on a checklist.
However, there may be ways to achieve Nussbaum’s goal by emphasizing different educational reforms. There are at least three things we can do as a country to encourage a more cosmopolitan spirit. The first is to increase the funding and opportunities for high schoolers to participate in foreign exchange programs. Second, colleges and universities must include study abroad in their graduation requirements. Finally, the United States needs to embrace the logic of the so-called “gap year.”
reverse oppression is impossible, ok
if an oppressed group could oppress privileged people, then they would not be oppressed
oppression requires social power and one of the things about being oppressed is that u don’t have social power
oppression doesnt even look like a word anymore but is this getting thru to u
What The Media Isn’t Telling You About Israel’s Attack On Gaza
by AJ+ Labs
Israel is responding to rocket attacks out of Gaza! That’s the headline you see everywhere. But we show you what the mainstream media isn’t telling you about this story.
Ben Whishaw reading “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allan Poe. I’ve never heard the strange, tender, spooky heart of it quite so clearly.
Anonymous asked: Yeah because you can totally tell how smart I am based on my opinion that porn is okay vs your opinion that is isn't. You're what's wrong with feminism; making men evil no matter what and women are always innocent victims who can't make choices for themselves. Because porn stars are totally forced to shoot videos and none of them have EVER quit the industry, right? Oh wait they have.
gonna need to pull your head out of your ass to read this one buddy
MASSIVE trigger warning for the following links and bullets. includes mentions of rape, abuse, violence, racism, misogyny, homophobia, child sex abuse, pedophilia
- There are over 420 million pages of pornographic material online worldwide. (IFR)
- 72 million searches for porn are logged monthly. (IFR)
- 25% of all daily search engine requests are for pornography (68 million searches daily) (IFR)
- 42.7% of internet users view porn (IFR)
- 100,000-plus websites are devoted to child pornography. There are over 116,000 daily requests for this material. (IFR)
- 20% of men admit to accessing pornography at work (IFR)
- 35% of those purchasing online porn make $75,000-plus annually. (IFR)
- The United States is the top producer of pornographic web pages with 244,661,900, or 89 percent (IFR)
- Worldwide revenue from mobile phone pornography is $1 billion-plus and growing (Bryan-Low, Cassel and Pringle, David. “Sex Cells: Wireless Operators Find That Racy Cellphone Video Drives Surge in Broadband Use.” The Wall Street Journal, May 12, 2005)
Ex-porn star testimonies:
- Corina Taylor: ”When I arrived to the set I expected to do a vaginal girl boy scene. But during the scene with a male porn star, he forced himself anally into me and would not stop. I yelled at him to stop and screamed ‘No’ over and over but he would not stop. The pain became too much and I was in shock and my body went limp.”
- Jenna Jameson: ”Most girls get their first experience in gonzo films – in which they’re taken to a crappy studio apartment in Mission Hills and penetrated in every hole possible by some abusive asshole who thinks her name is Bitch.”
- Alexa James: ”The first shoot I did was with a man who was probably 40 and he was as thick as a soda can. He held me down and shoved it in me with no lube tearing my vagina. When I started to tear up and cry he flipped me over and continued from behind be so they wouldn’t get me crying on film. He pulled my hair and choked me over and over again even when I told him it hurt and I could barely breathe.”
- Linda Lovelace: ”My initiation into prostitution was a gang rape by five men, arranged by Mr. Traynor. It was the turning point in my life. He threatened to shoot me with the pistol if I didn’t go through with it. I had never experienced anal sex before and it ripped me apart. They treated me like an inflatable plastic doll, picking me up and moving me here and there. They spread my legs this way and that, shoving their things at me and into me, they were playing musical chairs with parts of my body. I have never been so frightened and disgraced and humiliated in my life. I felt like garbage. I engaged in sex acts for pornography against my will to avoid being killed.The lives of my family were threatened.”
- Andi Anderson: ”After a year or so of that so-called “glamorous” life, I sadly discovered that drugs and drinking were a part of the lifestyle. I began to drink and party out of control! Cocaine, alcohol and ecstasy were my favorites. Before long, I turned into a person I did not want to be. After doing so many hardcore scenes I couldn’t do it anymore. I just remember being in horrible situations and experiencing extreme depression and being alone and sad.”
- Alexa Milano: ”My first movie I was treated very rough by 3 guys. They pounded on me, gagged me with their penises, and tossed me around like I was a ball! I was sore, hurting and could barely walk. My insides burned and hurt so badly. I could barely pee and to try to have a bowel movement was out of the question. I was hurting so bad from the physical abuse from these 3 male porn stars.”
- Jessie Jewels: ”People in the porn industry are numb to real life and are like zombies walking around. The abuse that goes on in this industry is completely ridiculous. The way these young ladies are treated is totally sick and brainwashing. I left due to the trauma I experienced even though I was there only a short time.”
- Genevieve: ”I had bodily fluids all over my face that had to stay on my face for ten minutes. The abuse and degradation was rough. I sweated and was in deep pain. On top of the horrifying experience, my whole body ached, and I was irritable the whole day. The director didn’t really care how I felt; he only wanted to finish the video.”
- Jersey Jaxin: ”Guys punching you in the face. You have semen from many guys all over your face, in your eyes. You get ripped. Your insides can come out of you. It’s never ending.”
- Elizabeth Rollings: ”I didn’t want to feel the pain of penetration from an over average sized man, being told to freeze in a position until the camera man was happy with his shots was very painful. I had peoples body fluids forced on my face or anywhere else the producer pleased and I had to accept it or else no pay. Sometimes you would get to a gig and the producer would change what the scene was supposed to be to something more intense and again if you didn’t like it, too bad, you did it or no pay.”
- Lucky Starr: ”I was worried about my first anal scene for quite a few days … then the big moment arrived. It REALLY hurt! I almost quit and said, “I can’t do this”. When it was all over, I was so happy and relieved I was able to do it…”
- Ashlyn Brooke: ”I honestly felt that if I had to have another strange man in my face, his hands (God knows where they’ve been all over me) him calling me his baby and having to exude some sort of forged passion for the world to see, I probably would have exploded. And what would have been stuck to the walls would have probably been nothing, just pieces of skin, bone, the brain of a robot, and what would have been left of what would have existed once as a huge and warm heart.”
- Roxy: ”After only 30 movies I caught two sexually transmitted diseases. Herpes, a non-curable disease and HPV, which led to cervical cancer where I had to have half of my cervix removed. Porn destroyed my life.”
- Anita Cannibal: ”Yeah, there are a lot of cover-ups going on. There is a lot of tragedy. There are a lot of horrible things.”
- Tamra Toryn: ”As for myself, I ended up paying the price from working in the porn industry. In 2006, not even 9 months in, I caught a moderate form of dysplasia of the cervix (which is a form of HPV, a sexually transmitted disease) and later that day, I also found out I was pregnant. I had only 1 choice which was to abort the baby during my first month. It was extremely painful emotionally and physically. When it was all over, I cried my eyes out.”
- Jessi Summers: ”I also did a scene where I was put with male talent that was on my no list. I wanted to please them so I did it. He put his foot on my head and stepped on it while he was doing me from behind. I freaked out and started balling; they stopped filming and sent me home with reduced pay since they got some shot but not the whole sce
- "teen" is the most commonly searched porn term
- child pornography is one of the fastest growing businesses online.
how pornographers feel about women:
- "I’d like to really show what I believe the men want to see: violence against women. I firmly believe that we [pornographers] serve a purpose by showing that. The most violent we can get is the cum shot in the face. Men get off behind that, because they get even with the women they can’t have. We try to inundate the world with orgasms in the face." - Bill Margold, porn industry veteran, quoted in Robert J. Stoller and I. S. Levine, Coming Attractions: The Making of an X-rated video; 1993.
- "There’s nothing I love more than when a girl insists to me that she won’t take a cock in her ass, because — oh yes she will!" -Max Hardcore, interviewed in Hustler (June 1995).
- "My whole reason for being in this Industry is to satisfy the desire of the men in the world who basically don’t much care for women and want to see the men in my Industry getting even with the women they couldn’t have when they were growing up. I strongly believe this… so we come on a woman’s face or somewhat brutalize her sexually: we’re getting even for their lost dreams. I believe this. I’ve heard audiences cheer me when I do something foul on screen. When I’ve strangled a person or sodomized a person, or brutalized a person, the audience is cheering my action, and then when I’ve fulfilled my warped desire, the audience applauds." - Bill Margold, porn industry veteran and Free Speech Coalition board member.
- "It might promote violence against women in the United States, but I say, ‘Good.’ I hate those bitches. They’re out of line and that’s one of the reasons I want to do this … I’m going through a divorce right now. … I hate American women." - What pornographers really think of women (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 14 October 1999)
- 88% of scenes contained physical aggression, including spanking, gagging, and slapping.
- Women were overwhelmingly the targets of aggressive acts, and men the perpetrators.
- Following instances of aggression towards women, in 95% of cases the women expressed pleasure or neutrality.
cases of porn leading children to commit sexual assualt IN THE UK ALONE:
- February 2014: A 13-year-old boy told a UK court that he raped his 8-year-old sister after viewing pornography at his friend’s house. The teenager told police he “decided to try it out” on his sister because she was small and “couldn’t remember stuff,” reported the Lancashire Telegraph.
- November 2013: A different 13-year old UK boy pleaded guilty to raping an eight-year old girlwhen he was 10. A pornography addiction since age 9 was said to have played a significant role in his crimes.
- March 2013: Two boys aged 14 and 15 admitted to a British court that they were re-enacting scenes witnessed in violent online pornography when they beat, brutalized, then raped a 14-year-old girl they had tied to a chair.
- March 2013: A UK report found that thousands of British children had committed sexual offenses. In all, 4,562 minors – some as young as five – committed 5,028 sexual offenses over a three year period from 2009-2012. Experts blamed “easy access to sexual material.”
- January 2012: Children’s aid and sex abuse organizations in Australia largely blamed 414 cases of children sexually abusing other children on the explosion of pornography made accessible to children.
- August 2012: A 13-year-old Canadian boy pleaded guilty to repeatedly raping a 4-year-old boy who lived in his foster home. The boy said the idea came from watching “gay porn” on his foster parents’ home computer.
- April 2012: A child therapist reported a case of a 13-year-old boy who raped his 5-year-old sisterafter developing a “complex fantasy world” warped by “two years of constant porn use.”
- Latinos and Hispanics: Pornography tends to stereotype Hispanic women as feisty, “hot and spicy Latinas”, sexy Señoritas, with a high sex drive and low impulse control. Many are portrayed as maids, illegal immigrants to the United States, or unfaithful wives. Since Latinos and Hispanics can be of any race (many are white Hispanic Americans, Mestizos etc.), cultural characteristics are sometimes portrayed via iconic items like South and Central American national costumes, sombreros, maracas, or Mexican dresses.
- Asian women: Are viewed as sexually willing or submissive. Asian men are hardly portrayed in pairing with white women and not as common compared to white men with asian women porn. Asian women are mainly portrayed as the: “Dragon Ladies”, as servile “Lotus Blossom Babies”, “Innocent School Girls” in private school uniforms, “China dolls”, “Geisha girls”, war brides, or prostitutes. Japanese media have also at times sensationalistically promoted the stereotype of Japanese women overseas as “yellow cabs”.
- Black performers: Large penis size in Black men is consistently emphasized in pornography, often by exclusively casting actors with larger than average penises such as Lexington Steele, Kid Bengala, Jack Napier and Mandingo. Men are often treated to stereotypes of gang affiliation, working class labor, and are overrepresented in gang rape fetish films. Also, they are represented as overly aggressive and demanding, and are performing with white women. Similarly, black women are often portrayed with large breast and buttocks, or ‘booty’. They normally play a submissive role while performing with a white male.
- Youth who look at violent x-rated material are six times more likely to report forcing someone to do something sexual online or in-person versus youth not exposed to x-rated material. 
- Middle-school aged boys who view X-rated content are almost three times more likely to report oral sex and sexual intercourse than boys who do not use sexually explicit material
- A study in the southeastern U.S. found that 53 percent of boys and 28 percent of girls (ages 12-15) reported use of sexually explicit media. The Internet was the most popular forum for viewing. 
- The words “sex” and “porn” rank fourth and sixth among the top ten most popular search terms. 
- Roughly two-thirds (67 percent) of young men and one-half (49 percent) of young women agree that viewing pornography is acceptable.
- Nearly 9 out of 10 (87 percent) young men and 1 out of 3 (31 percent) young women report using pornography.
- Experts have warned that the rise in the viewing of pornography was implicated in a variety of problems, including a rise in the levels of STDs and teenage pregnancies. Additionally, males aged between 12 and 17 who regularly viewed pornography had sex at an earlier stage in life and were more likely to initiate oral sex, apparently imitating what they had seen.  
- Internet pornography was blamed for a 20 percent increase in sexual attacks by children over three years.
- One out of three youth who viewed pornography, viewed the pornography intentionally.
- Seven out of ten youth have accidentally come across pornography online.
- Nearly 80 percent of unwanted exposure to pornography is taking place in the home (79 percent occurs in the home; 9 percent occurs at school; 7 percent other/unknown; 5 percent at a friend’s home).
- Kids experience unwanted exposure to sexual material via: A link came up as a result of an innocent word search (40 percent), Clicking on a link in another site (17 percent), A pop-up (14 percent), Other (13 percent), Misspelled web address (12 percent), Don’t know (4 percent), Pictures involving animals or other strange things (10 percent)
- Type of material youth encounter when unwanted exposure to pornography occurs: Naked people (86 percent), People having sex (37 percent), Violent pictures (13 percent)
- Nearly 74 percent of pornography websites surveyed display adult content on their homepage (accessible to anyone) before asking if the viewers are of legal age. 
- American children begin consuming hardcore pronography at an average age of 11
- Four out of five 16 year-olds regularly access pornography online
- Findings from the Youth Internet Safety Survey indicate that 15% of 12-17 year olds have purposefully looked at x-rated material online.
- Data from the PEW Internet and American Life Project suggest that 70% of 15-17 year old internet users accidently view pornography “very” or “Somewhat” often.
- Child pornography is a $3-billion industry. (Top Ten Reviews)
- Child pornography is one of the fastest growing businesses online, and the content is becoming much worse. (Internet Watch Foundation) Internet Watch Foundation confirmed 1536 child abuse domains in 2008.
- The fastest growing demand in commercial websites for child abuse is for images depicting the worst type of abuse, including penetrative sexual activity involving children and adults and sadism or penetration by an animal. 58% of child sexual abuse images depict this level of abuse. (IWF, 2008)
- 69% of all victims in child abuse images are between the ages of 0 and 10 years old. (IWF, 2008)
- In a study of arrested child pornography possessors, 40 percent had both sexually victimized children and were in possession of child pornography. Of those arrested between 2000 and 2001, 83 percent had images involving children between the ages 6 and 12; 39 percent had images of children between ages 3 and 5; and 19% had images of infants and toddlers under age 3 (National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Child Pornography Possessors Arrested in Internet-Related Crimes: Findings fro the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study. 2005).
- further decline in dopamine levels
- further decline in opioids and endorphins
- drop-off in GABA, which is an anti-anxiety neurotransmitter
- rise in brain stress hormones CRF and norepinephrine
- elevated dynorphin which inhibits dopamine and lowers your pleasure response
- one week after quitting the reward center sprouts new nerve cell branches, which correlate with cravings to use
- More sources on addiction to porn
- Poor concentration
- Social isolation
- Loss of libido (Can take days to manifest, and last a long time)
- Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
- Believing women suffer less from rape
- Believing women in general enjoy rape
- Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
- Believing women make false accusations of rape
- Believing rapist deserve less jail time
- More acceptance of the rape myth
- More acceptance of violence against women
- More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently
- Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
- More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
- More self-reported likelihood of rape
- Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
- Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
- More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
- More likelihood of future rape
- Using physical coercion to have sex
- Using verbal coercion to have sex
- Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
- Having engaged in rape
- Having engaged in date rape
- Having engaged in marital rape
- Being an adult sex offender
- Being a child molester
- Being an incest offender
- Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
- More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
- More sexual attraction to children
- Having sexually abused children
Life and death of a porn star:
- all the women who don’t make money from the porn industry.
- the women who are kidnapped, tortured, and forced into snuff films.
- the skeletons that NAFTA keeps hidden in cobweb-ridden closets on the U.S.-Mexican border.
- their average career length is 3 months. [x] [x]
If you don’t feel like reading:
- Shelley Lubben: Porn as a driver for prostitution and sex trafficking, (Vimeo)
- Cindy Gallop: Make love, not porn (Adult content)
- "They call it fantasy," - Andrea Dworkin
- Ex-Pornstar Jan Villarubia tells her story
- Dr. Gail Dines addressing porn culture and rape culture’s intersecting roles in patriarchy
- “Two Ex-Porn Stars Uncover The Truth About Porn.”
- This guy stopped watching porn — and he wants you to know why.
- Facing Life Head-On: Satan’s Final Frontier—the Sex Industry
- Dr. Gail Dine’s lectures on pornography on youtube (1, 2, 3, 4)
- This video has footage the porn industry doesn’t want you to see. Women are abused, screaming, crying, raped and in pain on the porn set…No woman should have to go to work only to return home beaten and traumatized.”
- On the show Date My Pornstar, porn fans get to interact and converse with their favorite pornstars about their experiences in the industry
- The story of ex-pornstar ‘Sal’, (Pink Cross Foundation)
- Porn actress Sierra Sinn Leaves Porn
- On the Joni talk show, ex-porn actresses come forward to share their experiences on what drove them into the porn industry, how it impacted their lives and what drove them out.
- Here is a site that has testimonies from lots of porn stars. The site is run by an ex pornstar who has dedicated her life to helping the women in the industry.
- Here is an article about Linda Lovelace, star of Deep Throat, basically the first pornography film, talking about how the film was her being raped, and the other atrocities she went through in the porn industry.
- Here is a video of a talk show where three porn actresses speak out against the industry and tell their stories. I can assure you, these are not extreme cases. This is the average life of porn stars.
- Here has great information on the porn industry, and if you scroll down to Porn and the Performer, you can read statistics about the porn industry and porn actresses and what they suffer through.
- Here is some facts about porn from Shelley Lubbens website.
- How porn harms the economy
- How porn harms relationships
- How porn harms gay men
- How porn harms gay women
- How porn harms POC
- Stop Porn Culture’s FAQ
- 400+ dead porn stars obituaries
- more databases on dead porn stars
- More testimonies
- 100+ stories
- anti porn documentaries
- Shelley Lubben.com (Ex porn-star helping other porn stars)
- Shelley Lubben’s MySpace Website
- List of Dead Porn Stars and How They Died
- Where My Ladies At (About porn and it’s connection to hip hop and rap.)
- Feminist Fred: A Place for Men to Learn about Feminism (Also home of Pornsick Pat)
- Compulsion Solutions
- Internet Pornography Statistics (InternetFilterReview.com)
- Porn and Sex Industry Statistics (Enough is Enough.)
- Pornography and Sex Trade Statistics (Most thorough and documented.)
- PBS Documentary “Porn In America”. Full video and lots of information.
- XXX Family Values: ABC Primetime Show about Porn Star Sunny Lane. (Sunny’s parents are her managers. Transcript and video clip at link.)
- ABC Primetime Interview with Porn Star Belladonn (Tells the harsh truth about porn.)
- Porn Profits: Corporate America’s Secret (ABC Primetime Show.)
- Anti-Pornography and Prostitution Research Group (Japan)
- Pornography: Creating Demand for International Sex Trafficking (By Shared Hope International)
- SHIT LOAD OF STATS
if these links aka fucking cold hard proof dont make you stop watching it, i hope you drop dead.
The girl, who has not been identified because of her age, was babysitting two young kids Wednesday afternoon in Bellingham when she said two armed men forced their way into the home.
She told police the men ordered her to leave with the children. She brought them to a neighbor’s house and called 911.
Speaking with police, the babysitter said the robbers were tall black men in their 20s or 30s.
Numerous deputies and a special response team swarmed into the neighborhood to secure the home and find the robbers. A Customs and Border Protection helicopter was also deployed to help search for the robbers.
The babysitter stuck to her original story for a while, but later cracked under questioning and admitted to lying. She told detectives no one barged into the home and that she was involved in the plan to steal valuables from the house.
She said she made up a list of items she wanted and gave it to her two accomplices, who then burglarized the house. Detectives soon identified the two suspected accomplices, one of whom was the babysitter’s boyfriend, 18-year-old Reuben Benjamin, according to deputies. The second was a 16-year-old boy, who deputies have not identified.
All it takes is words…
This is exactly what people mean when it’s not just “white men,” white women are just as guilty. So many Black men have been put away due to these false accusations or worse.
I don’t think people understand, if a Black person gets anything on a criminal record, we’re done. We can’t do anything, we will not be able to even think about moving up, getting a good job, we’re ruined.
Ever notice how whenever people want to accuse someone of murder/robbery to cover up their own fuck ups, its almost always black men?
That’s really sick. Thank god the little girl was able to set the record straight.
This makes me so sad.
This is SOOOOOOO important!!!!
If bees become extinct we will have exactly 4 YEARS to live on this planet. I don’t understand how “not giving a fuck” is more important than your life…
okay, I have a thing to say about this. I’m no expert on bees, but I am a biologist (and entomologist) so I think there is something I can contribute that’ll be of worth.
I agree entirely with the sentiment that we must protect honeybees. Obviously they are massively important for biodiversity, as well as pollinating food crops for humans. There is no doubt that if all the honeybees in the world were to vanish in a day that the consequences would be dire.
However, I disagree that the main cause for concern regarding honeybee death is the use of Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I’d be very interested to read a research paper that says ‘GM crops have killed millions of honeybees’, if indeed such a paper exists because in all honesty I find it highly unlikely that this is a true statement.
Let’s start with some facts about GM crops:
1. The development of GM crops is a highly regulated process, bound by strict country-specific legislature. A great number of trials are carried out long before commercial planting of a GM crop is even considered. It is these trials, and accompanying laboratory studies, that ensure a GM crop is safe to non-target organisms (such as honeybees) by investigating direct and indirect effects (Nap et al. 2003).
2. Crops that are genetically modified to express insecticidal proteins (for crop pest control) have a high level of specificity. This means that the insecticidal proteins being produced by the GM plant will only affect a narrow range of insect groups because of the chemical properties of the protein. For example, GM crops expressing insecticidal proteins sourced from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) will only target some Lepidopteran pests (caterpillars; Romeis et al. 2006). Furthermore, a recent meta-analysis of the literature found that GM Bt crops do not negatively affect the survival of adult honeybees or their larvae (Duan et al. 2008).
3. GM crops can be tailored such that the novel gene is expressed only in particular parts of the plant. For example, GM Bt rice plants express the toxin in the stems but not the grains (Datta et al. 1998). This technique means that gene expression can be excluded from the flowers/pollen of the crop plant, so that bees and other pollinators would not be affected. Neat, huh?
So those are a token few reasons why GM crops are safer than perhaps many people believe (as the result of a lot of questionable, non-scientific articles). To come back to our main point about honeybee death, I would like to briefly mention a few alternative explanations for the recent decline in honeybee populations. These are as follows:
1. Many bees have died as the result of broad-spectrum insecticide use. These are pesticides that lack specificity, and can be harmful to non-target organisms. Neonicotinoids are a well-studied example of this (Decourtye & Devillers, 2010). Not to worry, though, because many broad-spectrum pesticides including neonics are well on their way out. Indeed, the EU recently banned a large cohort of neonic pesticides. This is still a topic of controversy, mind (Goulson, 2013).
2. Many bees have died as the result of Varroa mite infestation. Imagine you’ve been bitten by several ticks, except those ticks are the size of dinner plates. That gives you an idea of the severity of a Varroa mite infestation on a single developing bee. The parasitisation of bees by Varroa mites and other parasites is often accompanied by disease transmission. This can result in colonies dying within two years after infestation (Johnson, 2011).
3. Many bees have died as the result of ‘colony collapse disorder’. This is a phrase that has popped up a lot recently, and is basically an umbrella term for the various causes of bee death including parasite infestation, disease transmission, environmental stresses, and management stresses such as poor nutrition (Johnson, 2011). Colony collapse has been attributed to broad-spectrum pesticide use in some instances. However, it is has still been observed in countries where broad-spectrum pesticides have been withdrawn (in the EU, like I mentioned earlier; Johnson, 2011).
So those are my main points. Please excuse the bullet-point nature of this; I was trying to keep it fairly short. Not sure I managed that haha. But anyway, my take-home message is that GM crops are not the enemy when it comes to honeybee decline. If anything, bees are at much greater danger from the use of broad-spectrum pesticides and from parasites and diseases. Using GM can even help to alleviate some of the problems associated with broad-spectrum pesticides, as they greatly reduce the need to apply such chemicals (Romeis et al. 2006).
A finishing note: Do your homework. Go on google scholar and read some of the literature, making sure it is recent (within the past 10-15 years). Literature reviews are a great way to find out what the consensus is on any given topic. Don’t use popular media as your main source of information where science is concerned; they tend to favour scandal and exaggeration. You want to know what’s really going on? Check out some research articles and see for yourself.
Thanks for sticking it through to the end of this impromptu mini-essay! —Alice
Datta, K., Vasquez, A., Tu, J., Torrizo, L., Alam, M. F., Oliva, N., Abrigo, E., Khush, G. S., & Datta, S. K. (1998). Constitutive and tissue-specific differential expression of the cryIA (b) gene in transgenic rice plants conferring resistance to rice insect pest. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97(1-2), 20-30.
Decourtye, A., & Devillers, J. (2010). Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to bees. In Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (pp. 85-95). Springer New York.
Duan, J. J., Marvier, M., Huesing, J., Dively, G., & Huang, Z. Y. (2008). A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS One, 3(1), e1415.
Goulson, D. (2013). Neonicotinoids and bees: What’s all the buzz?. Significance, 10(3), 6-11.
Johnson, R. (2011). Honey bee colony collapse disorder. DIANE Publishing.
Nap, J. P., Metz, P. L., Escaler, M., & Conner, A. J. (2003). The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. The Plant Journal, 33(1), 1-18.
Romeis, J., Meissle, M., & Bigler, F. (2006). Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control. Nature biotechnology, 24(1), 63-71.
YES GOD BLESS YOU MY CHILD I HOPE YOU ALWAYS HAVE EXACT CHANGE EVEN WHEN YOU THINK YOU’RE BROKE, MAY YOUR CAR ALWAYS MAKE IT TO THE NEXT GAS STATION AND I HOPE YOU NEVER DRIP CONDIMENTS DOWN ANY LIGHT COLOURED SHIRT YOU OWN
ap sex ed.
because public school sex ed sucks.
Oh my gosh amazing, accurate, GENDER NEUTRAL graphics?! I’ve died and gone to sex educator heaven. (The only thing better would be the inclusion of Intersex genitalia)
Reblogging because sadly, sex education is hella lax and this is an excellent guide.
White men make up approximately 36% of the population, but commit 75% of mass shootings. What would be called terrorism by any other skin tone is suddenly some mysterious unnamed disease. We as a society are perfectly happy to further stigmatize mentally ill people, who are far more likely to be victims of violence than commit violence, in the service of protecting white supremacy and male entitlement.
Resubmitting this because the original did not cite the original author, and plagirizing of WoC’s work is a serious and rampant issue. We cannot allow them to do this difficult work without acknowledging the value of their work. If you reblogged, please delete the original and reblog this version.